Health Physics Unit
RRCAT houses two electron synchrotron radiation sources (SRS), Indus-1 & Indus-2. Indus-1 is operated at 450 MeV whereas Indus-2 is operated at 2500 MeV. The facility consists of a pre-injector, 20 MeV microtron, a 450 / 550 MeV booster synchrotron and the storage rings(SRS), Indus-1 & Indus-2. The design electron beam current in Indus-1 & Indus-2 are 100 mA & 300 mA respectively. When the electron beam circulates in the storage ring, they undergo centripetal acceleration in the bending regions of the ring and emit synchrotron radiation in a narrow cone, tangential to the electron trajectory. The emitted synchrotron is utilized for various scientific research and various applications. Apart from the synchrotron radiation sources, there are other radiation facilities like 750 keV DC accelerator, 10 MeV industrial LINAC, Free Electron Laser(FEL), gamma chamber, X-ray diffraction facilities, Synchrotron radiation beam lines, laser plasma chamber etc. A radiation calibration facility is being set up for the calibration of radiation detectors.
Radiation environment of the synchrotron radiation sources are mainly due to bremsstrahlung radiation, produced as a result of the interaction of high energy electrons with structural materials or gas molecules within the vacuum chamber. In other words, the radiation environment is the manifestation of electro-magnetic cascade, generated as a result of interaction of relativistic electrons with accelerator components. Due to the cascade, the radiation filed is of mixed nature in which one has photons, electrons, positrons etc. The bremsstrahlung photons generated have a spectrum of energies from a minimum up to the energy of electrons, they are pulsed as electron beam in the accelerators is pulsed and are highly angular dependent. Due to the interaction of high energy photons, photo-neutron generation is also possible, which contribute to the radiation environment. Synchrotron radiation beam lines in Indus-2 are housed in specially designed shielded hutches, where apart from bremsstrahlung and photo-neutrons, synchrotron radiation, noxious gas ozone etc. are additional radiation hazards. Besides the hazards due to ionizing radiation, non-ionising radiation hazards due to RF & MW, magnetic fields, high voltage etc. are present.
Research & Development Activities:
Unlike nuclear fuel cycle operations or radiological laboratories, the radiation environment of accelerators in Indus complex is of unique nature due to high energy, pulsed, mixed field substantial amount of R&D activities are carried out at the centre. The major of them are listed below :
- Response of radiation detectors to high energy photon radiation
- Response of radiation detectors to pulsed radiation
- Experimental determination of the electromagnetic cascade propagation through various media and deduction of shower parameters at 450 MeV & 2500 MeV electron/photon radiation
- Study of RF interference in electronic instruments
- RF & MW leakage studies from accelerating RF cavities as a function of the RF power
- Source term determination for shielding evaluation at 450 MeV
- Experimental determination of Synchrotron & Bremsstrahlung dose rates in SR beam lines
- Experimental determination of radiation dose due to accidental beam loss in storage rings Indus-1 & Indus-2
- Development of small volume ion chambers for determination of radiation dose at critical areas in Indus-1 & Indus-2 and for critical applications like the determination of radiation dose per event during accidental beam loss.
- Experimental determination of scattering of synchrotron radiation from different scatters in SR beam lines of Indus-2 and the determination of its angular distribution as a function of atomic number of the scatter.
- Deduction of high energy response correction factor for radiation monitors for Indus-1 & Indus-2
- Use of Monte Carlo codes EGSnrc and FLUKA for radiation transport calculations relevant to Indus-1 & Indus-2
- Collaboration in the development, testing characterisation of radiation detectors for Synchrotron & bremsstrahlung radiation with RSSD, ED, BARC
- Radiation shielding calculations 15. Preparation of technical reports, quality scientific papers, internal reports etc
The following routine jobs are executed at the centre:-
- Radiation survey during different modes of operation of the SRS daily
- Radiation dose data retrieval from area radiation monitors historical data base, shift wise and its analysis.
- Radiation dose mapping (for both photons & neutrons) in inaccessible areas & accessible areas using passive dosimeters in collaboration with RPAD, RSSD, BARC.
- Response check of nearly ~100 area radiation monitors & survey instruments.
- Personnel radiation dosimetry : TLD to ~ 300 radiation workers on quarterly basis DRD issue on daily basis
- Maintenance of dose records
- Radiation alarm information on shift basis
- Radio-active source inventory
- Elementary radiation training to radiation workers
- Preparation of monthly, quarterly & annual reports
- Environmental radiation monitoring in collaboration with EAD, BARC (IERMON & Environmental TLD)
- Induced activity measurements during shut down or whenever required.
- Radiation safety surveillance of other radiation facilities of RRCAT
Human Resource Development (HRD)
- RRCAT training school: 20 lectures are delivered every year on radiation physics, safety health physics, radiation shielding.
- Training, Qualification, Licensing and Qualification for operators of Indus accelerator complex
- Training / discussion in health physics unit on various radiation physics, health physics related topics
- Delivering lectures in RRCAT seminar
- Response of monitoring instruments to high energy photon radiation ; Haridas.G, Thakkar.K.K, Pradhan.S.D, Nayak.A.R & Bhagwat.A.M Nuclear Instrumentation and Methods in Physics Research A449, 624-628, (2000)
- Study of electromagnetic shower propagation in copper and water at 450 MeV ; Haridas G. Nair, M K Nayak, Vipin Dev, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma, Radiation Protection & Environment 28, No.1-4, 53-55 (2005)
- Inter-comparison of neutron detectors in pulsed photo-neutron field, Haridas G. Sathian.V, Ponraju.D, M K Nayak, Dhariyawan.M.P, Thakker.K.K, Sarkar.P.K & D NSharma, Radiation Protection & Environment 28, No.1-4, 326-328 (2005)
- Study of Ozone gas build up and decay in 750 kV DC accelerator. M K Nayak, Vipin Dev, Haridas G Nair, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma. Radiation Protection & Environment 28, (2005)
- Radiological status of electron accelerators at CAT, Indore ; Vipin Dev, Dimple Verma, M K Nayak, Haridas G Nair Radiation Protection & Environment 28, (2005)
- Determination of dose build up thickness for absorbed dose measurement in high energy electron photon radiation at electron storage rings, Haridas G. Nair, Vipin Dev, M K Nayak, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma Radiation protection dosimetry 121(2) 92-98(2006)
- Dose build up correction for radiation monitors in high energy bremsstrahlung photon radiation fields. Haridas G. Nair, M K Nayak, Vipin Dev, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma, Radiation protection dosimetry, 118, (3), 233-237 (2006)
- Preparation and Characterization of CaF2: Mn Phosphor for High Dose Dosimetry, Vijay Kumar and A.K. Bakshi, Radiation Protection and Environment Volume30, No. 1-4, 2007
- Study on TL and OSL characteristics of indigenously developed CaF2:Mn Phosphor, A.K.Bakshi, Vijay Kumar et all, Nuclear Instr. and Methods in Phys.Res.B (2008)
- Estimation of bremmstrahlung photon energy in the environment of high-energy electron accelerator using TLD badge. A.K.Bakshi, M.K.Nayak, G.Haridas, S.Chatterjee and R.K.Kher Advance access Published in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 128(1) 43-48(2008)
- Simulation of electron depth dose at 450 MeV and deduction of useful parameters for radiation protection in Indian Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-1 Haridas.G. Nair, Mahendra Kumar Nayak, Vipin DeV, Thakar.K.K, Sarkar.P.K, Submitted to Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research- B (Nov 2009)
- Radiation safety considerations of the operation of Indus-1 Synchrotron Radiation Source Haridas Nair, Vipin Dev, Mahendra Nayak, Kapil Kumar Thakkar, Dimple Verma, Deva Nand Sharma, Pradeep Kumar Sarkar Presented in Asian Particle Accelerator Conference (APAC-2007), 29 Jan – 2 Feb 2007, RRCAT, India.
- Radiological physics studies at front ends of Indus beam lines. Haridas G. Nair, Nayak M.K., Dev Vipin, Sahani P.K., Kumar Vijay, Verma Dimple, Thakkar K.K., Sarkar P.K. and Sharma D.N. Abstract, Radiation Safety of Synchrotron Radiation sources (RADSYNCH-09) held at Elettra, Italy on May 2009.
- RF and Microwave radiation safety at CAT, Indore ; M K Nayak, Haridas G Nair, Vipin Dev, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma in Proc. of Indian Particle Accelerator Conference (2005)
- Experiment for dose measurement during beam killing at Indus-1 Synchrotron Radiation Source ; M K Nayak, Vipin Dev, G Haridas, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma, In proc. of Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, 393-394 (2006).
- Preliminary results on the estimation of photon energy and dose using TLD in Indus-1 Experimental Hall ;. A.K.Bakshi, M.K.Nayak, G.Haridas and R.K.Kher, In proc. of Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, 395-396 (2006).
- Experimental Study on response of Scintillation Detectors for Radiation Monitoring in Storage rings. G.Haridas, M.K.Nayak, K.K.Thaakkar, P.K.Sarkar, D.N.Sharma , In proc. of Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, 387-388 (2006).
- Beam Loss Detection Technique Using Radiation Detectors in Electron Accelerators at RRCAT, Indore. M K Nayak, G. Haridas, Vijay Kumar, P K Sahani, KK Thakkar, PK Sarkar and DN Sharma, Conference on Accelerator and Low Level radiation safety, IUAC, Delhi, (2007)
- Bremsstrahlung Contribution around X-Ray Diffraction Beam line at Indus-2 Synchrotron Radiation Source. M.K.Nayak, Vipin Dev, G.Haridas, Dimple Verma, K.K.Thakkar, P.K.Sarkar and D.N.Sharma, Conference on Accelerator and Low Level radiation safety, IUAC Delhi (2007)
- Radiation Energy Estimation During Ti-Sapphire Laser Plasma Experiments At RRCAT, Indore. M.K. Nayak, Dimple Verma, Vipin Dev, Vijay Kumar, P.K.Sahani, G.Haridas, K.K.Thakkar, Munish Kumar, L.C.Prasad, P.K.Sarkar And D.N.Sharma. National Symposium on Radiation Physics-17 (2007)
- Effect of storage ring shutdown on radiation level around Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source. Vipin Dev, M. K. Nayak, Vijay Kumar, P K Sahani, Dimple Verma, G. Haridas, K K Thakkar, P K Sarkar and D N Sharma, National Symposium on Radiation Physics-17, November, 2007
- Radiological status during Indus-2 SRS commissioning, Dimple Verma, M.K. Nayak, Vipin Dev, Vijay Kumar, P.K.Sahani, G.Haridas, K.K.Thakkar, P.K.Sarkar and D.N.Sharma, National Symposium on Radiation Physics-17( 2007)
- Electron depth dose - A tool for radiation safety programme in high energy electron accelerators. Haridas.G, Nayak.M.K, Vipin DeV, Thakkar.K.K, Sarkar.P.K and Sharma.D.N, National Symposium on Radiation Physics-17, (2007)
- Response of Neutron Dosimeters to Pulsed Neutron Fields in High Energy Electron Accelerators at Indus Complex, RRCAT, Dimple Verma, M.K.Nayak, Vipin Dev, P.K.Sahani, Vijay Kumar, Haridas G., K.K.Thakkar, Kohlekar R., P.K.Sarkar, D.N.Sharma, Rupali R., Jayalakshmi V., G. Chourasia, S.G. Vaijapurkar, National Conference on Indian Association of Radiation Protection, Defence Lab, Jodhpur (2008)
- Experimental Study of Radiation Environment in the Indus-1 Storage Ring using TLD Badges. M.K.Nayak, G.Haridas, A.K.Bakshi, Dimple Verma, K.K.Thakkar, P.K.Sarkar and D.N.Sharma , National Conference on Indian Association of Radiation Protection, Defence Lab, Jodhpur (2008)
- Simulation of equivalent dose due to accidental electron beam loss in Indus-1 and Indus-2 Synchrotron radiation sources using FLUKA code, P. K. Sahani, G. Haridas, Vipin Dev, K. K. Thakkar, Gurnam Singh, P. K. Sarkar, D. N. Sharma National Conference on Indian Association of Radiation Protection, Defence Lab, Jodhpur (2008)
- Applications of Radiation Monitoring System at Indus Accelerator Complex, Vipin Dev, P Haridas, A D Kherde, G Haridas, Vimal Bhatnagar, D S Thakur, R K Gupta, P Fatnani , R G Marathe National Conference on Indian Association of Radiation Protection, Defence Lab, Jodhpur (2008)
- Experimental Evaluation of the Radiological Condition of HRVUV Beam Line of Indus-1 SRS at RRCAT. Dimple Verma, M.K.Nayak, Vipin Dev, P.K.Sahani, G. Haridas Nair, K.K.Thakkar, S. Chouksey, G. Singh, P.K.Sarkar and D.N.Sharma, Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, RRCAT, Indore (2009).
- Simulation of electron, positron and bremsstrahlung spectrum generated due to electromagnetic cascade by 2.5GeV electron hitting lead target using FLUKA code. P. K. Sahani, G. Haridas, Vipin Dev, K. K. Thakkar, Gurnam Singh, P. K. Sarkar and D. N. Sharma, Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, RRCAT, Indore (2009).
- Experimental determination of beam loss point in Transport Line-2 of Indus Accelerator Complex. M.K.Nayak, Vipin Dev, P.K.Sahani, Dimple Verma, G.Haridas, K.K.Thakkar, P.K.Sarkar, Gurnam Singh and D.N.Sharma, Indian Particle Accelerator Conference, RRCAT, Indore (2009).
- Radiation Detectors used at Electron Accelerators at RRCAT, Vipin Dev, M. K. Nayak, Dimple Verma, G. Haridas, K K Thakkar, P. Haridas, Mukesh Khare, R K Gupta, R G Marathe, Gurnam Singh, National Conference on Accelerator and Low Level Radiation Safety, IUAC, New Delhi (2009)
- Estimation of Induced Radioactivity at Indus Accelerator Complex, Dimple Verma, M.K.Nayak, P.K.Sahani, Vijay Kumar, Vipin Dev, G.Haridas, K.K.Thakkar S.Chouksey and P.K.Sarkar, National Conference on Accelerator and Low Level Radiation Safety, IUAC, New Delhi (2009)
- Radiological Status of Ti-Sapphire Laser Plasma Chamber at RRCAT, Indore, M.K. Nayak, Dimple Verma, Vipin Dev, G.Haridas, K.K.Thakkar, D.N.Sharma and P.K.Sarkar , National Conference on Accelerator and Low Level Radiation Safety, IUAC, New Delhi (2009)
- Engineering Design and Development of Shielding Door and Safety Shutter for Transfer Line -3 Tunnel of Indus Accelerator Complex, S.K .Suhane, G.Haridas, M.K Nayak, Dimple Verma, R.S. Banerjee, Sanjay Chouksey, Gurnam Singh, National Conference on Accelerator and Low Level Radiation Safety, IUAC, New Delhi (2009)
- Study of bremsstrahlung spectra by varying incident electron energy, target and target thickness using FLUKA code, P. K. Sahani, P. K. Sarkar and Gurnam Singh, National Conference on Accelerator and Low Level Radiation Safety, IUAC, New Delhi (2009)
- Experimental determination of Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron radiation dose at SR beam lines of 2.5 GeV Indus-2 SRS, Haridas.G National Symposium on Radiation Physics-18, M.S University Udaipur( 2009)
- Shielding Evaluation of the upgraded version of Indus-2, Synchrotron Radiation Facility at Cat, Indore, A.R.Nayak, Haridas. G, K.K.Thakkar, D.N.Sharma, BARC, (2003)
- Catalogue of radiation generating facilities at CAT Indore, HPU, RRCAT, (2003)
- Photon spectrum measurements at Indus-1 Synchrotron Radiation Source Facility, CAT, Indore, , Haridas.G, Krishnamachari.G, Anilkumar.S, Kale.M.S, Nayak.M.K, Thaker.K.K, Nayak.A, Sharma.D.N and Abani.M.C, BARC Report, BARC/2003/I/001 (2003)
- Comparative study of radiation instrumentation used in electron accelerator at CAT, Indore, Dimple Verma, CAT/2005-18, (2005)
- Experiment to determine Bremsstrahlung component in synchrotron radiation at XRD beam line 12, Indus-2 experimental hall, G.Haridas, M.K.Nayak, Dimple Verma, Vipin Dev, RRCAT/AP/HPU/2006/399 (2006)
- Development of prototype ambient synchrotron radiation monitors fot Indus-2 SRS Beam lines, Vipin dev, P.Haridas, Azakuvelvan, R.K.Gupta, M.K.Nayak, Dimple Verma, P K Sahani, Vijay Kumar, K.K.Thakkar, A.K.Mahant, Sudhir Singh, S M Tripathi, P K Sarkar, D N Sharma, Mary Alex, P M Dighe, Sadhna Bhattacharya, C G Panchal, R Karpagam, P Y Bansode, R K Jakati and P.K. Mukhopadhyay, Report no.- RRCAT/2007-04 (2007)
- Effect of kickers on electron beam loss in booster synchrotron, M K Nayak, Vijay Kumar, P K Sahani, G Haridas, K K Thakkar, A C Thakurta, RRCAT, (Feb 2007)
- Radiation Survey for photon/neutron dose rate in Indus-1 experimental hall for different operating conditions, Technical Report. RRCAT/HPU/07 (2007)
- Beam loss detection in TL-2 in Indus-1 hall, Technical note: RRCAT/HPU/07/TR-02 (August 2007)
- Radiation levels in Indus-1 Experimental hall during beam transport from booster to Indus-1/Indus-2, Technical note: RRCAT/HPU/07/TR-01 (August 2007)
- Radiation measurement around X-ray inspection set at Indore Airport, HPU, RRCAT, (Dec 2007)
- Draft report on compilation of induced activity measurement data in components of Indus Accelerator Complex, (2007)
- Study on electron beam loss due to variation in steering coil current in Booster Synchrotron, M K Nayak, Vijay Kumar, P K Sahani, Vipn Dev, Dimple Verma & G.Haridas, HPU, RRCAT, Indore, (Jan 2008)
- Radiation level study near SIP-5 of TL-2 using beam loss detectors during Indus-1/ Indus-2 Injection, M.K.Nayak, Vipin Dev & G.Haridas, HPU, RRCAT, (Oct 2008)
- Source term and Shielding calculation for Indus-2 SR beam lines,HPU, RRCAT, (Apr 2008)
- Preliminary Report on Synchrotron and Bremsstrahlung Radiation Dose Measurement in Beam Lines of Indus-2, Health Physics Unit, RRCAT, (March 2009)
- Shielding Calculation for FEL LINAC, M.K.Nayak & G.Haridas, HPU, RRCAT, (Sep 2009)
- Report on shielding calculation for the radiation calibration cell at RRCAT, M K Nayak, G.Haridas, HPU, RRCAT, (Oct 2009)
- Radiation Safety Manual – Indus-1, HPU, CAT, (Jun 1997)
- Health Physics Training Manual, G.haridas, K.K.Thakkar, (1996)
- “Information Bulletin on Radiation Safety in Indus-1”, G. Haridas, K.K.Thakkar, for in plant training of radiation workers and visitors (Rev: 2001)
- Radiation Safety Manual Indus Accelerator Complex, HPU, RRCAT, (Mar 2008)
- Radiation Safety Manual for 750KeV, 20KW DC Accelerator, HPU, RRCAT, (2008)
- Radiation Safety Manual for 300KeV, 6KW DC Accelerator, HPU, RRCAT, (2008)
- Radiation Safety Manual for 12MeV Microtron based experiment facility, HPU, RRCAT, (2008)
- Radiation Safety Manual for 10MeV, 10KW Electron Linear Accelerator, HPU, RRCAT, (2008)
- Vikiran Suraksha, K.K.Thakkar, An article in Hindi in “PRAGATI”, in house magazine published by CAT, (1997)
- Indus-1 Mein Vikiran Suraksha Ke Upay, G.Haridas, An article in Hindi in “PRAGATI”, in house magazine published by CAT, (2002)
- Radio Frequency Aevam Microwave Suraksha, M.K.Nayak, An article in Hindi in “PRAGATI”, in house magazine published by CAT, (2005)
- Radiation Physics studies at Indus-1 synchrotron radiation source for radiation protection in high energy electron accelerators, Haridas G., RRCAT newsletter, Volume 21 (1), 34-39 (2008)
Awards & Recognition
Letter of appreciation to Dr. Haridas.G by Dr. John Hubbell, National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) “Emiretus”, U.S.A & Vice-president, International Society for Radiation Physics, for research in high energy bremsstrahlung radiation dosimetry at Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-1 (2006)
Dr. A.K.Ganguly Felicitation Prize -2010 was awarded to Dr. Haridas.G for outstanding contribution in radiation protection in low, medium & high energy accelerators by Indian Association for Radiation Protection (IARP) (2010).